
Cliff Mass of the University of Washington surveyed his Atmospheric Science 101 class at the University of Washington and found the following:
Consider these embarrassing statistics from the exam: The overall grade was 58%
43% did not know the formula for the area of a circle
86% could not do a simple algebra problem (problem 4b)
75% could not do a simple scientific notation problem (1e)
52% could not deal with a negative exponent (2 to the 2)
43% could not do simple long division problem with no remainder!
47% did not know what a cosine was.
Shocking does not begin to describe it. I recommend everyone go over the Seattle's "Where's the Math" website and take a look at the great stuff they've accumulated there as they have been involved in the lawsuit.
Cliff Mass: full post
Cliff Mass: the test (pdf file)
with answers (pdf file)
I'm taking the test now.
Unfortunately, I find I have forgotten what a rational exponent means  and I didn't manage to figure it out just by mulling it over briefly. Which is annoying.
update
I got everything right, and I believe I would have figured out the meaning of a rational exponent if I'd thought about it instead of Googling it.
The reason I got everything right is Saxon Math. I've worked my way through Saxon Math 6/5, 8/7, Algebra 1, and most of Algebra 2.